Encyclopedia of Practical Farm Knowledge

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This encyclopedia is a descendant in spirit and approach to the agricultural and mechanical arts sections of the Encyclopédie, published 150 years earlier.

FARM KNOWLEDGE (see forums for information about how to contribute to this tool http://www.farmhack.net/forums/uploading-encyclopedia-articles-and-editingupdating-text)
Preface: What This Book Is and Why We Made It
Organizations and Community Development

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Full Page Illustrations ........... vii
List of Authors xi
PART I. SOILS AND SOIL MANAGEMENT ...... 3-72
The Farmer holds in his hands the destiny of the soil and the bounty of its crops. For the way a soil is handled, fed, and cared for determines the size and value of its crops; and the way those crops are chosen, arranged, and disposed of, determines the life and producing power of the soil. How many of us measure up to this opportunity, this responsibility?
Chapter 1. Farm Soils: What They Are and How to Know Them 5
Chapter 2. How and Why Soils Are Poor 17
Chapter 3. How Poor Soils May be Improved . ..... 31
Chapter 4. Tillage and Its Relation to Soil Management . . 58
Chapter 5. Dry-Farming ........... 66
PART II. MANURES, FERTILIZERS, AND SOIL MODIFIERS 73-96
Chapter 6. Farm Manures . .... . . . . . . 73
CHAPTER 7. Commercial Fertilizers 80
Chapter 8. Lime: Its Forms and Uses . . . . . . . . 89
PART III. SYSTEMS OF FARMING IN AMERICA . . . 97-204
Chapter 9. Systems of Farming in New England . . ... 98
Chapter 10. Systems of Farming in the North Atlantic States . 106
Chapter 11. Farming Systems in the Cora Belt . . . . . . Ill
Chapter 12. Farming Systems in the Cotton Belt . ... . 115
Chapter 13. Farming Systems in the Gulf Coast Section . . . 120
Chapter 14. Farming Systems in the North,Central States. . . 124
Chapter 15. Farming Systems in the Mountain States .... 130
Chapter 16. Farming Systems in the Pacific States .... 134
Chapter 17. Farming Systems in Eastern Canada ..... 142
Chapter 18. Farming Systems in Western Canada ..... 149
Chapter 19. Farming Systems in the Outlying United States Territories 157
Chapter 20. The Principles of General Farming 167
Chapter 21. The Principles of Truck Farming . . . . . . 173
Chapter 22. The Principles of Market Gardening . . . . . 178
Chapter 23. Principles of Home or Kitchen Gardening . . . 182
Chapter 24. The Principles of Fruit Growing 194
Chapter 25. General Principles of the Nursery Business . . . 200
PART IV. HOW TO GROW CROPS 205-428
Chapter 26. How to Grow Field Crops 206
A. The Com Crops 209
B. The Small Grains 226
C. Forage Crops: Other Than Legumes 243
D. Forage Crops: The Legumes 254
E. Miscellaneous Field Crops 270
F. Fiber Crops 291
Chapter 27. Fruits in America and How to Grow Them . . . 302
Chapter 28. How to Grow Vegetables " 360
Chapter 29. Forest Products From the Farm 394
Chapter 30. How to Grow and Use Ornamental Plants . . . 408
PART V. CROP IMPROVEMENT AND PROTECTION . . . 429-536
Chapter 31. Crop Improvement 430
Chapter 32. Principles of Plant Injury and Its Control . . . 441 Chapter 33. Plant Diseases and Insect Enemies: How to Recognize and Control Them 449
Chapter 34. Farm Measures for Plant Protection 503
Chapter 35. Crop Protection Against Weeds . . . . . . 526
Chapter 36. Rodents and Other Animals That Injure Crops . . 531

PART I. FARM ANIMALS: THEIR MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH

LIVESTOCK has been the fundamental factor in agriculture since the beginnings of the world, when man first became a farmer. In beauty, in usefulness and in vital importance as measured by human needs, the dairy cow—the most highly specialized and developed of farm animals—stands as a fitting representative of them all.
List of Full Page Illustrations List of Authors

SECTION 1. HORSES

CHAPTER 1. How to Care for the Farm Work Horse ... 5 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/how-care-farm-work-horse
CHAPTER 2. Practical Horse Breeding 14
CHAPTER 3. Training and Fitting Horses 22
CHAPTER . 4. Types and Breeds of Horses 31

SECTION 2. CATTLE 49-89

CHAPTER 5. The Care of the Dairy Herd 49
'CHAPTER 6. Systems of Beef Production in America .... 59
CHAPTER 7. Dual Purpose Cattle " . 69 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/dual-purpose-cattle#wiki
CHAPTER 8. Types and Breeds of Cattle 74

SECTION 3. SHEEP AND GOATS .... 90-131

CHAPTER 9. Sheep Raising—The Farm Flock 90
CHAPTER 10. Sheep Raising—Range Management .... 98
CHAPTER 11. Types and Breeds of Sheep. . . . . . . 110
CHAPTER 12. Goats and Goat Raising 122

SECTION 4. SWINE . ... . . . 32-153

CHAPTER 13. How to Raise Hogs 132
CHAPTER 14. Types and Breeds of Swine 144

SECTION 5. OTHER FARM ANIMALS . . . 154-186

CHAPTER 15. The Dog on the Farm 154
Chapter 16. Raising Wild Animals on the Farm . . . 165
Chapter 17. Water Farming 175

SECTION 6. POULTRY AND BIRDS . . 187-258

CHAPTER 18. The Care of the Farm Flock . 187
CHAPTER 19. Commercial Poultry Production 197
CHAPTER 20. Poultry Breeds and Principles of Breeding . . . 206
CHAPTER 21. Turkeys and Turkey Raising 218
CHAPTER 22. Ducks and Geese and How to Raise Them . . . 225
CHAPTER 23. Pigeon Raising and Squab Production .... 231
CHAPTER 24. Birds on the Farm 239
CHAPTER 25. The Cultivation of Game Birds 252

PART II. FARM ANIMALS: THEIR CARE IN SICKNESS . . 261

SECTION I. COMMON DISEASES . . . 261-388

CHAPTER 26. Common Diseases of the Horse 262
CHAPTER 27. Common Diseases of Cattle 290
CHAPTER 28. Common Diseases of Sheep 315
CHAPTER 29. Common Diseases of Swine 326
CHAPTER 30. Common Diseases of Poultry 337
CHAPTER 31. Common Diseases of Dogs and Cats .... 351
CHAPTER 32. Drugs and Doses for Farm Use 361
CHAPTER 33. The Surgical Treatment of Farm Animals . . . 374

SECTION 2. INFECTIOUS DISEASES. . . 389-432

CHAPTER 34. Tuberculosis 390
CHAPTER 35. Hog Cholera 399
CHAPTER 36. Contagious Abortion 406
CHAPTER 37. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Apthous Fever) . . . 412
CHAPTER 38. Texas Fever ........... 419
CHAPTER 39. ' Glanders—Anthrax—Blackleg—Rabies . . . . 424

PART III. ANIMAL PRODUCTS . .... . . . . 433-531

CHAPTER 40. Milk and Its Products ......... 434
CHAPTER 41. The Care and Use of Milk on the Farm . . . . 448
CHAPTER 42. Commercial Dairying 458
CHAPTER 43. Butter Making on Farms and in Factories ... 466
CHAPTER 44. Cheese Making at the Farm and Factory . . . 474
CHAPTER 45.. The Fanner’s Meat Supply 482
CHAPTER 46. Cured Meats and By-Products . , . . . 496
CHAPTER 47. Handling Wool and Mohair on the Farm. ... 503
CHAPTER 48. How to Handle and Market Furs . . . . ■. . 510
CHAPTER 49. Beekeeping: Apiary Management . .. . . . 516
CHAPTER 50. Beekeeping: Honey Production 526

VOLUME II—PART I FARM IMPLEMENTS AND CONSTRUCTION CONTENTS .
THE FARMER's WORTH is measured by his results. His results depend largely upon the ability with which he judges, buys, uses, and takes care of his equipment. In the marvelous development of agriculture throughout the ages, no factor has been more important than the invention and perfection of improved tools, implements, buildings, and machines.
List of Full Page Illustrations List of Authors

Volume II

PART I. FARM VEHICLES http://www.farmhack.net/wiki/farm-vehicles

CHAPTER 1. Horse-Drawn Work Vehicles for the Farm . . . 5
CHAPTER 2. Horse-Drawn Pleasure Vehicles 14
CHAPTER 3. The Use and Care of Farm Hamess 20
CHAPTER 4. Motorcyeles and Light Automobiles on the Farm . 26
CHAPTER 5. Motor Trucks and Trailers on the Farm . . 42
CHAPTER 6. The Farm Tractor 55 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/farm-tractor#wiki

PART II. FARM IMPLEMENTS 71-150

CHAPTER 7. Machines for Tilling the Soil 72
CHAPTER 8. Machines for Seeding and Planting Crops . . . 87
CHAPTER 9. Machines for Harvesting and Threshing Crops . . 97
CHAPTER 10. Machines Used in Preparing Crops for Use . . . 114
CHAPTER 11. Garden Implements and Hand Tools 123
CHAPTER 12. DairyMachineryfortheFarmer 132
CHAPTER 13. Machines for Spraying Crops 144

PART III. POWER ON THE FARM 151-220

CHAPTER 14. Power and Power Machinery on the Farm . . 152
CHAPTER 15. Windmills 167
CHAPTER 16. Water Power on the Farm 173
CHAPTER 17. Steam Engines 180
CHAPTER 18. Electricity on the Farm 188
CHAPTER 19. Intemal-Combustion Engines 203
CHAPTER 20. How to Care for Farm Implements 216 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/care-farm-implements#wiki

PART IV. FARM CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING. . 221-304

CHAPTER 21. Practical Farm Surveying 222
CHAPTER 22. Practical Farm Drainage 232
CHAPTER 23. Practical Farm Irrigation 246
CHAPTER 24. The Building and Care of Farm Roads . . . . 262
CHAPTER 25. Concrete and Its Use on the Farm 273
CHAPTER 26. General Repair Work on the Farm 289
CHAPTER 27. Dynamite and Its Use on the Farm . . . * . . 298

PART V. FARM BUILDINGS AND THEIR EQUIPMENT . . 305^67

CHAPTER 28. Planning the Farmstead Layout 306
CHAPTER 29. The Farmhouse: Its Location and Design . . . 314
CHAPTER 30. The Farmhouse: Its Construction and Arrangement 326
CHAPTER 31. Farmhouse Equipment 339
CHAPTER32. Farm Buildings: Their Construction 361
CHAPTER 33. The Equipment of Farm Buildings 380
CHAPTER 34. Special Purpose Barns 396
CHAPTER 35. Farm Poultry Buildings 418
CHAPTER 36. Storage and Work Buildings 429 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/storage-and-work-buildings#wiki
CHAPTER 37. Icehouses and Cold Storage Houses 444
CHAPTER 38. Silos: How to Build and Use Them 453
INDEX . . 4W*
APPENDIX. Practical Farm Fence Construction 489

Volume II Part II

Volume II. Part II. FARM LIFE
BUSINESS and home life on the farm are one and inseparable. This makes farming different from every other business, and the farm home different from every other home in the world. Has any farm family ever realized all it has to be thankful for—in its opportunity to get the best and the most out of living without going beyond the boundaries of its own home?
CONTENTS
PAGE
List of Full Page Illustrations vii
Acknowledgments x
List of Authors ix
PART I. THE BUSINESS OF FARMING 3-136
CHAPTER 1. Farming in a Businesslike Way ... ~ . 5
CHAPTER 2. Farm Records: How and Why They Should be Kept 25
CHAPTER 3. The Farmer and His Money ........ 38
CHAPTER 4. The Principles of Successful. Marketing of Farm Products 49
CHAPTER 5. Farm Owners, Farm Tenants, Farm Employees, and
the Relations Between Them 69
CHAPTER 6. Cooperation in Farming 80
CHAPTER 7. The Farmer and the Law 96
CHAPTER 8. Rural Economics .......... Ill
CHAPTER 9. The Neighborhood as a Business Asset .... 127
PART II. THE FARM HOME, FAMILY, AND COMMUNITY 139-334
CHAPTER 10. The Farm Home . . ... . ‘. . . . . 140
CHAPTER 11. The Farm Family 157
CHAPTER 12. The Farm Woman 164
CHAPTER 13. The Child on the Farm 244
CHAPTER 14. Modem Education for the Farm Boy and Girl . , 267 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/modern-education-farm-boy-and-girl#wiki
CHAPTER 15. The Farm Community 300 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/organizations-rural-community-development#wiki
http://www.farmhack.net/tools/community-library
PART III. SCIENCE AND THE FARMER 335-424
CHAPTER 16. The Science of Physics 337
CHAPTER 17. The Science of Chemistry . 362
CHAPTER 18. Other Sciences in Farming 387
Botany 387
Breeding 395
Geology 402
Arithmetic 410

FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS
The Farmer's Worth is measured by his results. His results depend-largely upon the ability with which he judges, buys, uses and takes care of his equipment. In the marvellous development of agriculture throughout the ages, no factor has been more important than the invention and per- fection of improved tools, implements, buildings and machines. Frontispiece (in color)
The pleasure vehicle is an important factor in farm life. ^It keeps country folk in touch with each other and with the outside as nothing else can . 33
The limits of wagon transportation efficiency are determined only by the extent of the forces that a man can control 34
The modem motor vehicle has won its high and permanent position in the farmer's esteem because of its dual purpose nature 51
The better the farmer knows his machines and vehicles, the farther he is able to extend their range of usefulness 52
Motor trucks are made in all sizes, types and capacities. The farmer who reaIly needs one has but to choose the kind best suited to the majority of his needs 85
The small farm tractor as a combination movable and stationary source of power is aknost revolutionizing certain phases of farm work . . . 86
The progress of farming is marked not only by the increased amount of work done, but also by the greater ease with which it is accomplished . 103
The object of a farm machine is to save time, save labor, increase the work done and decrease its cost. Do your implements do this? . . . . 104
The test of a successful farmer is not how hard he works but how much he ac- complishes economically. What good are profits if one wears himself out in securing them? 137
Farming gives many men a living in spite of, rather than because of, their methods. But this is no reason for sticking to obsolete, inefficient practices 138
Man power is no longer the most abundant and cheapest form for farm use. It must be conserved in every possible way 155
The farmer's power supply is safeguarded by the fact that if his engines break down he can fall back on the natural sources in the emergency 156
Every tool and machine that the farmer uses deserves shelter when not in use, intelligent handling, and frequent overhauling 189
Probably no industry, not primarily engineering or mechanical in nature, makes as much use of the principles of these sciences as does farming 190
Drainage is a means of reclaiming poor land, improving good tend, and benefiting the farm and the farmer in many ways 207
It would seem as though the earth had prepared a supply of moisture in those regions where the heavens deny it. The result is irrigation. . . 208
There is an irrigation system for every set of conditions under which arti- ficial watering is needed 241
Overhead or sprinkler irrigation, an invention of the Twentieth Century, is opening the way to new possibilities in humid regions 242
Poor roads are among the commonest causes of farm failure. But their improvement is largely in the farmer's hands 259
The well-planned farmstead places all related fields and buildings as near together as possible and the dwelling in a convenient location with respect to all of them 260
The farm is both a home and a place of business. The dweUing especiaUy should meet both needs 293
Design and plans of a low-priced farmhouse that won first prize in a compe- tition held under the auspices of the Minnesota State Art Society . . 294
Farm buildings must be planned and placed with reference, first, to their purpose, second, to the natural conditions of the locality 311
The purpose of modern barn equipment is to make conditions safe and sani- tary, and the labor of the daily chores as Ught as possible . . . . . 312
From good buildings come profits; and these in turn mean better buildings 345
There is a best type of building for every purpose. The first task is to de- termine it; the second, to build it carefully and well 346
Comfortable, contented animals do the best work, give the most milk, make the quickest gains and return the largest profits. The buildings largely determine the degree of their comfort and contentment 363
Manufacturing work on the farm as elsewhere, if it is to be profitable, must be placed on a basis of scientific efficiency 364
The farmer's fuel is his woodlot; a supply of ice is for the taking. What other profession offers such perquisites in addition to its normal retums? 397
Careful housing of poultry pays. Because a flock survives neglect is no reason why it should not be given conditions under which it can thrive 398
It is neither the costliness nor the cheapness of a building that makes it a success. The point is: Does it get results? 415
The silo, aside from being an invaluable asset on the stock farm, is often a striking feature of the farm group. There is a type for every place and every purse 416

Since the beginnings of the world, when man first became a farmer, livestock has been the fundamental factor in agriculture. In beauty, in usefulness, in vital importance, as measured by human needs, the dairy cow—the most highly specialized and developed of farm animals—stands as a fitting representative of them all Frontispiece (in color)
Four-ways in which the horse serves man 33
To be efficient, the work horse must be well sheltered, equipped, and cared for. 34
The leading three draft breeds in America 51
Three breeds of horses made in the United States 52
Three foundation breeds of horses developed across the seas . '. 85
Two strictly American products—the American jack and the mule . . 86
Foundation stones of success with cattle 103
The leading dairy breeds—-I. Ayrshire and Guernsey 104
The leading dairy breeds—II. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey .... 137
The leading beef breeds—I. Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway . . . . 138
The leading beef breeds—II. Hereford and Shorthorn 155
Three sources of meat for the nation 4156
Sheep play two parts in American agriculture 189
Milk and Angora goats are steadily increasing in importance .... 190
Swine—one of the cornerstones of profitable farming 207
Livestock still wild, but which may yet be domesticated 208
Four ways in which the right kind of dog can serve the right kind of farmer 241
The leading utility breeds and varieties of poultry—I 242
The leading utility breeds and varieties of poultry—II 259
Poultry, like other livestock, can be raised as producers or as show material. 260
Utility breeds for pigeon raising and squab production 293
Ducks and geese can always be raised as a farm sideline and sometimes as a
commercial specialty 294
Birds as friends and foes; and the turkey industry 311
Prevention is more important—and often more effective—than cure, in the care of livestock diseases 312
Knowledge of the fowl’s body, its parts and their operation is essential to successful farm doctoring 345
Dairying is dairying whether the herd is of one cow or a hundred .... 346
Cleanliness and sunlight are fundamental factors in successful dairying . 363
For both producer and consumer buttermaking in the creamery is more profitable than buttermaking on the farm 3 64
One of America’s real opportunities in agriculture is the development of the cheese industry 397
The butchering of the nation’s meat has been taken out of the farmer’s
hands but he can still profitably raise and dress his own supply . . . 398
When every farm has its flock of sheep, the nation’s wool crop will be more nearly what it can and should be 415
Beekeeping is a recreation, an art, and a profitable business that any farmer can afford to look into 416