Encyclopedia of Practical Farm Knowledge

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This encyclopedia is a descendant in spirit and approach to the agricultural and mechanical arts sections of the Encyclopédie, published 150 years earlier.

FARM KNOWLEDGE (see forums for information about how to contribute to this tool http://www.farmhack.net/forums/uploading-encyclopedia-articles-and-editingupdating-text) Preface: What This Book Is and Why We Made It Organizations and Community Development

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Full Page Illustrations ........... vii List of Authors xi PART I. SOILS AND SOIL MANAGEMENT ...... 3-72 The Farmer holds in his hands the destiny of the soil and the bounty of its crops. For the way a soil is handled, fed, and cared for determines the size and value of its crops; and the way those crops are chosen, arranged, and disposed of, determines the life and producing power of the soil. How many of us measure up to this opportunity, this responsibility? Chapter 1. Farm Soils: What They Are and How to Know Them 5 Chapter 2. How and Why Soils Are Poor 17 Chapter 3. How Poor Soils May be Improved . ..... 31 Chapter 4. Tillage and Its Relation to Soil Management . . 58 Chapter 5. Dry-Farming ........... 66 PART II. MANURES, FERTILIZERS, AND SOIL MODIFIERS 73-96 Chapter 6. Farm Manures . .... . . . . . . 73 CHAPTER 7. Commercial Fertilizers 80 Chapter 8. Lime: Its Forms and Uses . . . . . . . . 89 PART III. SYSTEMS OF FARMING IN AMERICA . . . 97-204 Chapter 9. Systems of Farming in New England . . ... 98 Chapter 10. Systems of Farming in the North Atlantic States . 106 Chapter 11. Farming Systems in the Cora Belt . . . . . . Ill Chapter 12. Farming Systems in the Cotton Belt . ... . 115 Chapter 13. Farming Systems in the Gulf Coast Section . . . 120 Chapter 14. Farming Systems in the North,Central States. . . 124 Chapter 15. Farming Systems in the Mountain States .... 130 Chapter 16. Farming Systems in the Pacific States .... 134 Chapter 17. Farming Systems in Eastern Canada ..... 142 Chapter 18. Farming Systems in Western Canada ..... 149 Chapter 19. Farming Systems in the Outlying United States Territories 157 Chapter 20. The Principles of General Farming 167 Chapter 21. The Principles of Truck Farming . . . . . . 173 Chapter 22. The Principles of Market Gardening . . . . . 178 Chapter 23. Principles of Home or Kitchen Gardening . . . 182 Chapter 24. The Principles of Fruit Growing 194 Chapter 25. General Principles of the Nursery Business . . . 200 PART IV. HOW TO GROW CROPS 205-428 Chapter 26. How to Grow Field Crops 206 A. The Com Crops 209 B. The Small Grains 226 C. Forage Crops: Other Than Legumes 243 D. Forage Crops: The Legumes 254 E. Miscellaneous Field Crops 270 F. Fiber Crops 291 Chapter 27. Fruits in America and How to Grow Them . . . 302 Chapter 28. How to Grow Vegetables " 360 Chapter 29. Forest Products From the Farm 394 Chapter 30. How to Grow and Use Ornamental Plants . . . 408 PART V. CROP IMPROVEMENT AND PROTECTION . . . 429-536 Chapter 31. Crop Improvement 430 Chapter 32. Principles of Plant Injury and Its Control . . . 441 Chapter 33. Plant Diseases and Insect Enemies: How to Recognize and Control Them 449 Chapter 34. Farm Measures for Plant Protection 503 Chapter 35. Crop Protection Against Weeds . . . . . . 526 Chapter 36. Rodents and Other Animals That Injure Crops . . 531


LIVESTOCK has been the fundamental factor in agriculture since the beginnings of the world, when man first became a farmer. In beauty, in usefulness and in vital importance as measured by human needs, the dairy cow—the most highly specialized and developed of farm animals—stands as a fitting representative of them all. List of Full Page Illustrations List of Authors


CHAPTER 1. How to Care for the Farm Work Horse ... 5 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/how-care-farm-work-horse CHAPTER 2. Practical Horse Breeding 14 CHAPTER 3. Training and Fitting Horses 22 CHAPTER . 4. Types and Breeds of Horses 31


CHAPTER 5. The Care of the Dairy Herd 49 'CHAPTER 6. Systems of Beef Production in America .... 59 CHAPTER 7. Dual Purpose Cattle " . 69 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/dual-purpose-cattle#wiki CHAPTER 8. Types and Breeds of Cattle 74


CHAPTER 9. Sheep Raising—The Farm Flock 90 CHAPTER 10. Sheep Raising—Range Management .... 98 CHAPTER 11. Types and Breeds of Sheep. . . . . . . 110 CHAPTER 12. Goats and Goat Raising 122

SECTION 4. SWINE . ... . . . 32-153

CHAPTER 13. How to Raise Hogs 132 CHAPTER 14. Types and Breeds of Swine 144


CHAPTER 15. The Dog on the Farm 154 Chapter 16. Raising Wild Animals on the Farm . . . 165 Chapter 17. Water Farming 175


CHAPTER 18. The Care of the Farm Flock . 187 CHAPTER 19. Commercial Poultry Production 197 CHAPTER 20. Poultry Breeds and Principles of Breeding . . . 206 CHAPTER 21. Turkeys and Turkey Raising 218 CHAPTER 22. Ducks and Geese and How to Raise Them . . . 225 CHAPTER 23. Pigeon Raising and Squab Production .... 231 CHAPTER 24. Birds on the Farm 239 CHAPTER 25. The Cultivation of Game Birds 252


CHAPTER 26. Common Diseases of the Horse 262 CHAPTER 27. Common Diseases of Cattle 290 CHAPTER 28. Common Diseases of Sheep 315 CHAPTER 29. Common Diseases of Swine 326 CHAPTER 30. Common Diseases of Poultry 337 CHAPTER 31. Common Diseases of Dogs and Cats .... 351 CHAPTER 32. Drugs and Doses for Farm Use 361 CHAPTER 33. The Surgical Treatment of Farm Animals . . . 374


CHAPTER 34. Tuberculosis 390 CHAPTER 35. Hog Cholera 399 CHAPTER 36. Contagious Abortion 406 CHAPTER 37. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Apthous Fever) . . . 412 CHAPTER 38. Texas Fever ........... 419 CHAPTER 39. ' Glanders—Anthrax—Blackleg—Rabies . . . . 424

PART III. ANIMAL PRODUCTS . .... . . . . 433-531

CHAPTER 40. Milk and Its Products ......... 434 CHAPTER 41. The Care and Use of Milk on the Farm . . . . 448 CHAPTER 42. Commercial Dairying 458 CHAPTER 43. Butter Making on Farms and in Factories ... 466 CHAPTER 44. Cheese Making at the Farm and Factory . . . 474 CHAPTER 45.. The Fanner’s Meat Supply 482 CHAPTER 46. Cured Meats and By-Products . , . . . 496 CHAPTER 47. Handling Wool and Mohair on the Farm. ... 503 CHAPTER 48. How to Handle and Market Furs . . . . ■. . 510 CHAPTER 49. Beekeeping: Apiary Management . .. . . . 516 CHAPTER 50. Beekeeping: Honey Production 526

VOLUME II—PART I FARM IMPLEMENTS AND CONSTRUCTION CONTENTS . THE FARMER's WORTH is measured by his results. His results depend largely upon the ability with which he judges, buys, uses, and takes care of his equipment. In the marvelous development of agriculture throughout the ages, no factor has been more important than the invention and perfection of improved tools, implements, buildings, and machines. List of Full Page Illustrations List of Authors

Volume II

PART I. FARM VEHICLES http://www.farmhack.net/wiki/farm-vehicles

CHAPTER 1. Horse-Drawn Work Vehicles for the Farm . . . 5 CHAPTER 2. Horse-Drawn Pleasure Vehicles 14 CHAPTER 3. The Use and Care of Farm Hamess 20 CHAPTER 4. Motorcyeles and Light Automobiles on the Farm . 26 CHAPTER 5. Motor Trucks and Trailers on the Farm . . 42 CHAPTER 6. The Farm Tractor 55 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/farm-tractor#wiki


CHAPTER 7. Machines for Tilling the Soil 72 CHAPTER 8. Machines for Seeding and Planting Crops . . . 87 CHAPTER 9. Machines for Harvesting and Threshing Crops . . 97 CHAPTER 10. Machines Used in Preparing Crops for Use . . . 114 CHAPTER 11. Garden Implements and Hand Tools 123 CHAPTER 12. DairyMachineryfortheFarmer 132 CHAPTER 13. Machines for Spraying Crops 144


CHAPTER 14. Power and Power Machinery on the Farm . . 152 CHAPTER 15. Windmills 167 CHAPTER 16. Water Power on the Farm 173 CHAPTER 17. Steam Engines 180 CHAPTER 18. Electricity on the Farm 188 CHAPTER 19. Intemal-Combustion Engines 203 CHAPTER 20. How to Care for Farm Implements 216 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/care-farm-implements#wiki


CHAPTER 21. Practical Farm Surveying 222 CHAPTER 22. Practical Farm Drainage 232 CHAPTER 23. Practical Farm Irrigation 246 CHAPTER 24. The Building and Care of Farm Roads . . . . 262 CHAPTER 25. Concrete and Its Use on the Farm 273 CHAPTER 26. General Repair Work on the Farm 289 CHAPTER 27. Dynamite and Its Use on the Farm . . . * . . 298


CHAPTER 28. Planning the Farmstead Layout 306 CHAPTER 29. The Farmhouse: Its Location and Design . . . 314 CHAPTER 30. The Farmhouse: Its Construction and Arrangement 326 CHAPTER 31. Farmhouse Equipment 339 CHAPTER32. Farm Buildings: Their Construction 361 CHAPTER 33. The Equipment of Farm Buildings 380 CHAPTER 34. Special Purpose Barns 396 CHAPTER 35. Farm Poultry Buildings 418 CHAPTER 36. Storage and Work Buildings 429 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/storage-and-work-buildings#wiki CHAPTER 37. Icehouses and Cold Storage Houses 444 CHAPTER 38. Silos: How to Build and Use Them 453 INDEX . . 4W* APPENDIX. Practical Farm Fence Construction 489

Volume II Part II

Volume II. Part II. FARM LIFE BUSINESS and home life on the farm are one and inseparable. This makes farming different from every other business, and the farm home different from every other home in the world. Has any farm family ever realized all it has to be thankful for—in its opportunity to get the best and the most out of living without going beyond the boundaries of its own home? CONTENTS PAGE List of Full Page Illustrations vii Acknowledgments x List of Authors ix PART I. THE BUSINESS OF FARMING 3-136 CHAPTER 1. Farming in a Businesslike Way ... ~ . 5 CHAPTER 2. Farm Records: How and Why They Should be Kept 25 CHAPTER 3. The Farmer and His Money ........ 38 CHAPTER 4. The Principles of Successful. Marketing of Farm Products 49 CHAPTER 5. Farm Owners, Farm Tenants, Farm Employees, and the Relations Between Them 69 CHAPTER 6. Cooperation in Farming 80 CHAPTER 7. The Farmer and the Law 96 CHAPTER 8. Rural Economics .......... Ill CHAPTER 9. The Neighborhood as a Business Asset .... 127 PART II. THE FARM HOME, FAMILY, AND COMMUNITY 139-334 CHAPTER 10. The Farm Home . . ... . ‘. . . . . 140 CHAPTER 11. The Farm Family 157 CHAPTER 12. The Farm Woman 164 CHAPTER 13. The Child on the Farm 244 CHAPTER 14. Modem Education for the Farm Boy and Girl . , 267 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/modern-education-farm-boy-and-girl#wiki CHAPTER 15. The Farm Community 300 http://www.farmhack.net/tools/organizations-rural-community-development#wiki http://www.farmhack.net/tools/community-library PART III. SCIENCE AND THE FARMER 335-424 CHAPTER 16. The Science of Physics 337 CHAPTER 17. The Science of Chemistry . 362 CHAPTER 18. Other Sciences in Farming 387 Botany 387 Breeding 395 Geology 402 Arithmetic 410

FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS The Farmer's Worth is measured by his results. His results depend-largely upon the ability with which he judges, buys, uses and takes care of his equipment. In the marvellous development of agriculture throughout the ages, no factor has been more important than the invention and per- fection of improved tools, implements, buildings and machines. Frontispiece (in color) The pleasure vehicle is an important factor in farm life. ^It keeps country folk in touch with each other and with the outside as nothing else can . 33 The limits of wagon transportation efficiency are determined only by the extent of the forces that a man can control 34 The modem motor vehicle has won its high and permanent position in the farmer's esteem because of its dual purpose nature 51 The better the farmer knows his machines and vehicles, the farther he is able to extend their range of usefulness 52 Motor trucks are made in all sizes, types and capacities. The farmer who reaIly needs one has but to choose the kind best suited to the majority of his needs 85 The small farm tractor as a combination movable and stationary source of power is aknost revolutionizing certain phases of farm work . . . 86 The progress of farming is marked not only by the increased amount of work done, but also by the greater ease with which it is accomplished . 103 The object of a farm machine is to save time, save labor, increase the work done and decrease its cost. Do your implements do this? . . . . 104 The test of a successful farmer is not how hard he works but how much he ac- complishes economically. What good are profits if one wears himself out in securing them? 137 Farming gives many men a living in spite of, rather than because of, their methods. But this is no reason for sticking to obsolete, inefficient practices 138 Man power is no longer the most abundant and cheapest form for farm use. It must be conserved in every possible way 155 The farmer's power supply is safeguarded by the fact that if his engines break down he can fall back on the natural sources in the emergency 156 Every tool and machine that the farmer uses deserves shelter when not in use, intelligent handling, and frequent overhauling 189 Probably no industry, not primarily engineering or mechanical in nature, makes as much use of the principles of these sciences as does farming 190 Drainage is a means of reclaiming poor land, improving good tend, and benefiting the farm and the farmer in many ways 207 It would seem as though the earth had prepared a supply of moisture in those regions where the heavens deny it. The result is irrigation. . . 208 There is an irrigation system for every set of conditions under which arti- ficial watering is needed 241 Overhead or sprinkler irrigation, an invention of the Twentieth Century, is opening the way to new possibilities in humid regions 242 Poor roads are among the commonest causes of farm failure. But their improvement is largely in the farmer's hands 259 The well-planned farmstead places all related fields and buildings as near together as possible and the dwelling in a convenient location with respect to all of them 260 The farm is both a home and a place of business. The dweUing especiaUy should meet both needs 293 Design and plans of a low-priced farmhouse that won first prize in a compe- tition held under the auspices of the Minnesota State Art Society . . 294 Farm buildings must be planned and placed with reference, first, to their purpose, second, to the natural conditions of the locality 311 The purpose of modern barn equipment is to make conditions safe and sani- tary, and the labor of the daily chores as Ught as possible . . . . . 312 From good buildings come profits; and these in turn mean better buildings 345 There is a best type of building for every purpose. The first task is to de- termine it; the second, to build it carefully and well 346 Comfortable, contented animals do the best work, give the most milk, make the quickest gains and return the largest profits. The buildings largely determine the degree of their comfort and contentment 363 Manufacturing work on the farm as elsewhere, if it is to be profitable, must be placed on a basis of scientific efficiency 364 The farmer's fuel is his woodlot; a supply of ice is for the taking. What other profession offers such perquisites in addition to its normal retums? 397 Careful housing of poultry pays. Because a flock survives neglect is no reason why it should not be given conditions under which it can thrive 398 It is neither the costliness nor the cheapness of a building that makes it a success. The point is: Does it get results? 415 The silo, aside from being an invaluable asset on the stock farm, is often a striking feature of the farm group. There is a type for every place and every purse 416

Since the beginnings of the world, when man first became a farmer, livestock has been the fundamental factor in agriculture. In beauty, in usefulness, in vital importance, as measured by human needs, the dairy cow—the most highly specialized and developed of farm animals—stands as a fitting representative of them all Frontispiece (in color) Four-ways in which the horse serves man 33 To be efficient, the work horse must be well sheltered, equipped, and cared for. 34 The leading three draft breeds in America 51 Three breeds of horses made in the United States 52 Three foundation breeds of horses developed across the seas . '. 85 Two strictly American products—the American jack and the mule . . 86 Foundation stones of success with cattle 103 The leading dairy breeds—-I. Ayrshire and Guernsey 104 The leading dairy breeds—II. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey .... 137 The leading beef breeds—I. Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway . . . . 138 The leading beef breeds—II. Hereford and Shorthorn 155 Three sources of meat for the nation 4156 Sheep play two parts in American agriculture 189 Milk and Angora goats are steadily increasing in importance .... 190 Swine—one of the cornerstones of profitable farming 207 Livestock still wild, but which may yet be domesticated 208 Four ways in which the right kind of dog can serve the right kind of farmer 241 The leading utility breeds and varieties of poultry—I 242 The leading utility breeds and varieties of poultry—II 259 Poultry, like other livestock, can be raised as producers or as show material. 260 Utility breeds for pigeon raising and squab production 293 Ducks and geese can always be raised as a farm sideline and sometimes as a commercial specialty 294 Birds as friends and foes; and the turkey industry 311 Prevention is more important—and often more effective—than cure, in the care of livestock diseases 312 Knowledge of the fowl’s body, its parts and their operation is essential to successful farm doctoring 345 Dairying is dairying whether the herd is of one cow or a hundred .... 346 Cleanliness and sunlight are fundamental factors in successful dairying . 363 For both producer and consumer buttermaking in the creamery is more profitable than buttermaking on the farm 3 64 One of America’s real opportunities in agriculture is the development of the cheese industry 397 The butchering of the nation’s meat has been taken out of the farmer’s hands but he can still profitably raise and dress his own supply . . . 398 When every farm has its flock of sheep, the nation’s wool crop will be more nearly what it can and should be 415 Beekeeping is a recreation, an art, and a profitable business that any farmer can afford to look into 416